Apocalypse on Lesbos

Overcrowded facilities crammed with thousands of migrants. Gutmenschen to cater to them. Wasted food, filth, disease, fraud, and official corruption: welcome to the Morria migrant camp on Lesbos.

Many thanks to Tanya T for translating this Bulgarian documentary, and to Vlad Tepes for the subtitling:

I think Vlad may have cut some footage, so the transcript is probably longer than the video above.

Video transcript:

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Germany: Move On, Nothing to See Here

The following report by Egri Nök was published earlier at Vlad Tepes in a slightly different form.

Tuesday morning at rush hour in Munich main train station: Police overpower a knife-carrying man. Photo: Joerg Voelkerling

Germany: Move On, Nothing to See Here

by Egri Nök

Munich — Tuesday morning, between all the commuters and tourists, a man with a knife prompted a police operation inside the main train station. This isn’t anything special anymore, it is the new German normal. Someone who just happened to be there wrote on Facebook,

“Crazy, all the tourists were panicking, and the Germans were totally ignoring it like nothing was going on.”

Germany has seen a recent surge in violent crime and in knife violence, a discipline not long ago practically unknown to Germans.

For the first time ever, “due to the increase of the intensity of violence”, Berlin police just issued a total ban on carrying any dangerous objects on the subway between 8pm and 6 in the morning. Normally, you can carry small knives like Swiss army knives, and pepper spray.

Austria and Bavaria Speak With One Voice on “Asylum” Policy

Yesterday Austrian Chancellor Sebastian Kurz met with Bavarian Minister-President Markus Söder (the successor to Horst Seehofer, who is now Interior Minister) to discuss migration issues. The video below is a brief account of their meeting, with excerpts from the press conference.

It’s a reminder that Bavaria is a quasi-sovereign entity in some respects. It can conduct its own foreign policy to a limited extent, without having to clear it in advance with Berlin.

Many thanks to Ava Lon for the translation, and to Vlad Tepes for the subtitling:

Video transcript:

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Gates of Vienna News Feed 6/20/2018

At the Obama gas station and convenience store in Columbia, South Carolina, a customer got into a heated argument with the store clerk over gas prices. As the customer exited the store, the clerk, Antar Daralhaj, shot him in the buttocks. Well, OK, the news story says “lower body”. But I’ll bet it was his butt.

In other news, tomorrow the Visegrad Four prime ministers will be holding a meeting in Budapest, and Austrian Chancellor Sebastian “Boy” Kurz will be joining them.

To see the headlines and the articles, click “Continue reading” below.

Thanks to Dora, Reader from Chicago, Vlad Tepes, and all the other tipsters who sent these in.

Notice to tipsters: Please don’t submit extensive excerpts from articles that have been posted behind a subscription firewall, or are otherwise under copyright protection.

Caveat: Articles in the news feed are posted “as is”. Gates of Vienna cannot vouch for the authenticity or accuracy of the contents of any individual item posted here. We check each entry to make sure it is relatively interesting, not patently offensive, and at least superficially plausible. The link to the original is included with each item’s title. Further research and verification are left to the reader.

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Hungary Passes the “Stop Soros” Law

After gaining a two-thirds majority in the Hungarian parliament, the Christian Democratic alliance led by Prime Minister Viktor Orbán has passed a comprehensive law designed to prevent illegal immigration, in addition to the controversial “Stop Soros” Act.

Many thanks to CrossWare for translating this article from the Hungarian daily Magyar Idők (Hungarian Times):

The Hungarian Parliament Passed the Amendment of the Basic Law and the Stop Soros Law

June 20, 2018

Parliament adopted the seventh amendment to the Basic Law at the initiative of the government on Wednesday. The fundamental obligation of the state to protect the country’s constitutional identity and Christian culture, and to prevent the settlement of a foreign population in Hungary was enshrined in the constitution. According to the adopted Stop Soros Act, the promotion and support of illegal immigration will be criminal offenses under the law.

  • Each state body has a duty to protect the country’s constitutional identity and Christian culture
  • No foreign population may be settled in Hungary
  • The criteria have been established for refugee status in Hungary
  • It is forbidden to live permanently in a public area (homeless people)
  • Vote for the constitutional protection of the homeland
  • The Supreme Administrative Court is hereby established
  • Supporting, assisting and organizing illegal immigration will be punishable with prison sentences
  • The main objective is to prevent Hungary becoming an migrant-accepting country

The law requiring the support of two-thirds of all parliamentary representatives was approved by 159 votes for YES to 5 votes for NO.

With the amendment submitted by László Trócsányi, Minister of Justice, the constitutional identity and the Christian culture of the country became a duty of all organs of the state. The wording of the responsibilities shared with the EU was extended and incorporated in the constitution. The innovation is that the exercise of common competence must be in line with the fundamental rights and freedoms contained in the Basic Law, and must not restrict the inalienable right to dispose of the territorial units, population, state forms and state structures of Hungary.

No foreign population may be settled in Hungary, they recorded.

The text of the Basic Law now includes the stipulation that that a foreign citizen without the right to move and reside can [only] live on Hungarian territory on the basis of an individual request from the Hungarian authorities. As specified in the text, it has been determined who is entitled to asylum in Hungary: non-Hungarian nationals who are persecuted because they belong to a particular social group, for reasons of religious or political beliefs in their country of origin or country of their habitual residence, or because their fears of direct persecution are well-founded.

Until now the Basic Law did not contain the restriction that a non-Hungarian citizen who came to Hungary through a country where there was no direct danger of persecution is not entitled to asylum. The basic rules for the granting of asylum are determined by a pragmatic law.

There is now a legal protection for the home. According to the Constitution, freedom of expression and the right of assembly cannot justify harming the private and family life of others, or their homes. [Translator’s note: This will take care of liberals and Antifa, who tries to harass opponents in their homes; it also takes care of the notorious homelessness, because there are plenty of job opportunities and housing available.] The current text of the Basic Law allows a law or local government to classify a habitual public place of residence as illegal in order to protect public order, public security, public health and cultural values in a specific part of the public domain.

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What Happened at Baltimore

Today is the 387th anniversary of the taking of Christian slaves in a razzia by Muslim pirates at the Irish port of Baltimore in 1631. To commemorate the event Michael Copeland sends the following essay.

What Happened at Baltimore

by Michael Copeland

It was nearly the longest day of the year, June 20th, when the menfolk of the English fishing settlement of Baltimore in south-west Ireland, set off for a full day out at sea. The year was 1631, the weather good.

When the men returned they were faced with a hideous and life-changing shock. The village was empty: wives and families gone. While they had been out fishing a marauding force of armed muslim Ottoman slavers from the Barbary coast of North Africa had landed, taken everyone as slaves, and sailed away. Some 108 English settlers, who worked a pilchard industry in the village, and many local Irish were taken.

The muslims, Algerians and Turks, had not “misunderstood their religion”, or “perverted”, “twisted”, or “hi-jacked” it. Piracy is part of Islam. Slavery is part of Islam. They were doing what Islam authorises, taking the filthy kuffar by force as spoils of war, Islam being, as Al-Azhar University teaches, in “a permanent state of war” with non-muslims, the “unbelievers”. Sheikh Huwayni of Saudi Arabia makes this clear:

Muslims in the past conquered, invaded, and took over countries. This is agreed to by all scholars… there is no disagreement on this from any of them, from the smallest to the largest, on the issue of taking spoils and prisoners. The prisoners and spoils are distributed among the fighters, which includes men, women, children, wealth, and so on.

(Translating Jihad, 11 June 2011)

This doctrine accounts for why pantomime pirates are depicted in turbans and with scimitars. It is no coincidence, and no joke. They are based on the sea-borne muslim jihadis who plagued shipping in the Mediterranean, raided coastal Mediterranean villages, and ventured further north, attacking places such as Boscastle in Cornwall, making a slave base on Lundy Island, and even going as far as Iceland.

The ships of the young United States, lacking the protection of the British Navy, became subject to the depredations of these “Barbary Pirates” back in the 1780s and 1790s. The Barbary States declared war, the first war of the young USA. Ships were taken by force, their crews sold as slaves, or held for ransom. United States representatives John Adams and Thomas Jefferson enquired in London of the Ambassador of the Bey of Tunis why they were doing this.

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Gates of Vienna News Feed 6/19/2018

The Southgate Underground station in London was evacuated for a time today, along with nearby residences, after an explosion occurred at the entrance. Five people were injured, and two remain in the hospital. Police say the cause was most likely a battery exploding.

In other news, a man crashed his car into another vehicle in a Wal-Mart parking lot in Alabama, then shot two women to death in the other car before killing himself.

To see the headlines and the articles, click “Continue reading” below.

Thanks to Charles Low, Dean, JD, Seneca III, Srdja Trifkovic, SS, and all the other tipsters who sent these in.

Notice to tipsters: Please don’t submit extensive excerpts from articles that have been posted behind a subscription firewall, or are otherwise under copyright protection.

Caveat: Articles in the news feed are posted “as is”. Gates of Vienna cannot vouch for the authenticity or accuracy of the contents of any individual item posted here. We check each entry to make sure it is relatively interesting, not patently offensive, and at least superficially plausible. The link to the original is included with each item’s title. Further research and verification are left to the reader.

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Viktor Orbán: Forget the Idea That Islam is Part of Any European Country

Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orbán gave a speech last Saturday at the conference “Budapest Europe-talk”, which was held in the Hungarian capital. The video below contains excerpts from the prime minister’s remarks. It was translated by Dzsihádfigyelo, and a close-captioned version was originally posted. Vlad Tepes has kindly converted the CC to subtitles:

A brief summary of the speech (in English) was posted at the Hungarian government’s website.

Video transcript:

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Another Young Girl Murdered in Barsinghausen

Another gruesome murder took place in the Hannover region over the weekend. Many thanks to Nash Montana for translating an article from Politically Incorrect and a video on the same subject, and to Vlad Tepes for subtitling the video:

Anna-Lena Theis: Suspect in the murder is from the Dominican Republic

[Photo caption: “Double crime scene at Adolf Grimme Elementary school in Barsinghausen. Here within exactly two months, two people were murdered.]

by Johannes Daniels

The butchery continues. In the murder of the 16-year-old Anna-Lena Theis from Barsinghausen by Hannover, a 24-year-old suspect was arrested on Monday evening. The suspect has German and Dominican citizenship, the police in Hannover stated. Witness testimonies and investigations have led to the man. It is now further investigated whether suspicions against the 24-year-old “Dominican” can be confirmed.

Anna-Lena Theis was first reported missing by her godmother, with whom she was living. The 16-year-old girl was visiting a city festival in neighboring Ronnenberg with her best friend. After the festival they took the train back to Barsinghausen where they intended to meet more friends at the train station. It is here that Anna-Lena Theis was last seen alive about 1am, and her cell phone was disconnected at 1:30am. She took the last S-train from Hannover towards Haste and exited the train at the Barsinghausen stop.

In this idyllic neighborhood of Barsinghausen, hikers made a grisly discovery on Sunday afternoon about 2pm: Directly in front of the Adolf-Grimme-Elementary school the body of Anna-Lena Theis was discovered lying in the grass. Anna-Lena was on her way home; she was a mere few hundred meters away from her house.

Prosecution: “Extremely Raw Use of Violence”

One resident recounts that she heard screams in the middle of the night. “A man and a woman fought loudly. But I didn’t think anything of it.” The autopsy of the 16-year-old Anna-Lena showed: “A massive blow against her head” was the cause of death. According to the current investigation, a sex crime did not take place after the murder.

[WHAT?? “A sex crime did not take place after the murder”? In other words, this was not a sex crime? Despite her missing her lower clothes, the guy probably attempting to rape her and when she defended herself, he killed her, and that is not considered a sex crime??? — Translator]

Peter K., the man who discovered the 16-year-old’s body on Sunday, said that Anna-Lena’s body was naked from her breasts on down. “I was riding my bicycle as I often do, and then I saw her,” the 77-year-old says, pointing to where he found her body. Slightly hidden behind a tree with her head resting against a small wall. “We don’t even dare going outside anymore,” says a woman with shock in her voice. Within exactly two months two women in Barsinghausen have been murdered, the woman doesn’t feel safe anymore. Later in the evening members of the family and friends of the victim came together where she was found, lit candles and put down stuffed animals in memory of the murdered girl. Priests were on hand, and one very upset school principal who asked for understanding because she didn’t want to answer any questions. Classes at the elementary school continue in the meantime. And the Barsinghausen “Bert-Brecht School” nearby has even been considered a “school without racism” since 2004 — with much, much tolerance!

Exactly two months ago: Murder of “Anka” Veronika B. at the exact same location

Near the Adolf-Grimme-Elementary in Barsinghausen another woman, Veronika B. was brutally murdered on April 17th of this year. A woman discovered the dead body when she was walking her dog along the irrigation ditch. 55-year-old Veronika had also been brutally murdered. No viable proof for the identity of the murderer has been found. “We are now investigating whether there is a connection between the two murders,” police spokeswoman Kathryn Pfeiffer says. And in this case, too, just as in Anna-Lena’s case, police are still looking for witnesses who may have seen or talked to her shortly before her death. Veronika was called “Anka” by her friends and family. The police are taking witness reports at the number 0511-1095555 in both cases, Anka and Anna-Lena.

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Flipflophofer Again Buckles to Merkel

Rembrandt Clancy has translated an essay and a video on the current political crisis in Germany, and includes an introduction providing context for the confrontation between Interior Minister Horst Seehofer and Chancellor Angela Merkel.

Germany Witnesses the Hara-Kiri of the CSU


by Rembrandt Clancy

For about the last week, Chancellor Angela Merkel’s political survival has been the source of much speculation. Egri Nök provided background for Gates of Vienna: among the issues, the most important for present purposes is whether Angela Merkel’s Interior Minister and coalition partner, Horst Seehofer (CSU), can successfully force a policy of turning ‘refugees’ away at the German border, including those who “have already applied for asylum in another safe European country” and are under a ban to enter Germany.

The translation included here is by Eugen Prinz of Politically Incorrect News. He explains what was actually agreed between Herr Seehofer and Frau Merkel, what the next step will be, what the “compromise” means for patriots and why Horst Seehofer’s final capitulation to Angela Merkel is the best of all possible results for Germany and why it is “one of the most serious mistakes” in the history of the Christian Social Union of Bavaria (CSU).

The CSU is the sister party to Chancellor Merkel’s Christian Democratic Union (CDU) and is native only to the state of Bavaria, with seats in both the Landtag (state parliament) and the Bundestag. The CDU covers the other 15 states. The CSU also forms an important part of the current Groko, or Grand Coalition.

In the recent past, Interior Minister Horst Seehofer (CSU) has made common cause with Hungary’s Prime Minister Victor Orbán on protecting European borders. Were this issue to result in a break between Horst Seehofer and Angela Merkel, it would put an end to the Groko, and split the federal CDU/CSU caucus. The Bundestag was suspended on Friday in the heat of this controversy.

In terms of political pressures, Herr Seehofer and the Bavarian CSU are currently squeezed between Angela Merkel’s open borders policy and the anti-mass immigration Alternative für Deutschland party (AfD) in Bavaria, who, while they currently have no seats in the state parliament, enjoy popular support for their position on immigration.

Also, Herr Seehofer went into negotiations with Frau Merkel after having already been politically weakened. The CSU lost 10 seats in the Bundestag in the federal election of 2017 compared with the election of 2013 (cf. Federal Parliament, Bundestag). Because of this fall in the CSU’s popularity Seehofer agreed not to run in the 2018 state elections; and earlier this year Markus Söder was elected to replace Seehofer as Minister-President. That is when Seehofer moved into Merkel’s cabinet.

Corinna Miazga is a Bavarian AfD representative in the Bundestag. The following contribution includes an interview she gave to Jürgen Elsässer, editor of Compact Magazine, the day before Seehofer backed down. In it she predicts with considerable confidence what Horst Seehofer in fact did, and provides credible historical reasons for why his behaviour forms a predictable pattern. She also addresses other important questions, such as whether or not there are circumstances under which the AfD would cooperate in coalition with the CSU.

Flipflophofer Again Buckles to Merkel

Germany Witnesses the Hara-Kiri of the CSU
By Eugen Prince
PI-News: 18 June 2018

Translation by Rembrandt Clancy

And he did it! Once more, Flipflophofer [substitution of Drehhofer for Seehofer], has buckled to Merkel, although this time he had leaned so far out the window that everyone was certain there would be no turning back. But Flipflophofer remained true to himself, with all that that implies: With this “compromise” he no longer landed only as a doormat, but as a microbe, and his party likewise with him.

What does this “compromise” look like?

The CSU Chairman and Federal Minister of the Interior, Mr. Flipflophofer, Lord and Master of the Federal Police and national frontiers, agrees, with the unanimously approved backing of his party, that Merkel will have until the end of the month to attempt to work out a European solution to the dispute about the turning back of particularised refugees at the German border. In the event an agreement fails, however, there is to be “no automatism” [for turning back refugees], as it is said in CDU circles: “Decisions on further procedures will made in the light of what has been achieved [Merkel]”.

Now what happens next?

In practice this means that first and foremost everything stays as it is. Merkel will now endeavour to reach agreements with the relevant European countries (mainly Austria, Italy and Greece) on the turning-back of asylum seekers who are already registered there. Particularly in the case of Italy, one may wish her a jolly good time with it, given the new government there. One need not be a prophet to foretell that she will be banging her head against the wall. That is where the motto of [the former professional footballer], Franz Beckenbauer, applies: ‘The best-laid plans of mice and men; but things are as they are, watch, and then master the future” [south German idiom in dialect]

What does this outcome mean for patriots?

In its basics, this result has to fill every patriot with a sense of relief. Were the CSU to have remained firm, it would have effected no significant improvements in the conditions in our country. For based on experience thus far, only one in five asylum seekers seeking entry at the border has been registered in another EU country or has been subject to a travel ban to Germany. However, the psychological impact on the broad, uninformed and ill-informed population of such refusals of entry at the border would have been dramatic. They would have been perceived as the saviour of the West and would have been rewarded accordingly in the coming state elections in Bavaria. Were the CSU to have remained firm, they would have dealt the AfD a severe blow without having greatly changed anything in the catastrophic conditions in Germany. Incidentally, the Bavarian AfD member of the Bundestag, Corinna Miazga, had the right nose in this matter:

“Compromise” marks the beginning of the decline of the Christian Socialists

In the annals of the CSU, this “compromise” will go down as one of the most serious mistakes in the party’s history. The expectations of the voters have in recent days been driven to vertiginous heights, from which they have now plummeted precipitously into a bottomless abyss. The AfD can pop the champagne corks, for things remain as-is: anyone under a travel ban to Germany may nonetheless continue on their way into Germany; he need only stammer the A-word. In the discussion with the German Press Agency [Deutsche Presse-Agentur], the federal Chairman of the German Police Union, Rainer Wendt, characterised the current practice, whereby even immigrants with a ban on entry can come to Germany, as “play out of a madhouse”. “Whoever can say ‘asylum’ can enter”.

And in this madhouse, which will continue to remain one, we now stand reverentially aside and watch as the CSU, in the tradition of the Japanese Samurai, celebrate their very own hara-kiri. Banzai!

And for the future we shall remember the Minister Presidents of North Rhine-Westphalia, Hesse and Saarland, namely, Armin Laschet, Volker Bouffier and Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer as Merkel’s loyal vassals.

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Why Do German Girls Lust After Culture-Enrichers?

Many thanks to Nash Montana for translating this essay from Journalisten Watch:

Why do indigenous girls find “refugee” men so attractive?

by A.R. Göhring

Mia, Mireille, Susanna, Iulia,… all these girls became victims of their murderous “colorful” boyfriends or ex-partners. These murdered women and girls are merely the tip of the iceberg — just think of the Silvester catastrophe of 2015, where in the Baden town of Weil, two adolescent German girls were lured into an apartment by a gang of asylum seekers and then brutally raped. At least they survived.

These days every resident of a medium or large size German city can amazingly often observe that native girls are in relationships with mostly Sunni mohammedans. What is it that makes so many girls and women gravitate towards these liaisons?

At least experience shows us that women find uneducated, unemployed have-nots mostly unattractive, despite of where they are from. Also the reputation that has been bestowed upon all “refugees” of the male gender by the thieving, groping, masturbating, raping, beating and murdering immigrants is still seen as mostly off-putting.

One would think so, anyway. Or not? In the multicolored multicultural student city of Jena, a bunch of asylum groups have been terrorizing the inner city and the city park for about two years.

What is striking about this is that these young Arab and Afghan men are constantly in the company of indigenous schoolgirls, with whom they presumably go to school with (a toast to the educational training of unaccompanied “minor refugees”).

I found that remarkable. What is it that drives these girls? This is the question I asked hundreds of Facebook friends who with their hive intelligence have shone a light onto this phenomena.

Reason Number 1: Raw, Unobstructed Masculinity Versus German Gender-Boys

“Because their nature makes them seek out instinctively what has been so frantically educated away from our boys in schools, kindergarten, etc. Masculinity, strength, dominance, and so on.”

“Very simple: Because German boys have been made into pussies and wimps by their mothers and female teachers.”

“YOU wanted feminism, YOU chanted along: Men are pigs!… And now you have to deal with the consequence of castrating German men!”

“They f*** good.” [The fact that Middle Eastern men who for the most part have never even seen uncovered women, are potent, is really not a good argument.]

“Because they are pushy and young girls are intimidated easily. Has nothing to do with being attractive. Parents and overpaid so-called pedagogues should be responsible in taking countermeasures against this. But they themselves are so brainwashed and incompetent.”

“Because they are so different from their wimpy fathers!”

“Pale, narrow shouldered, white-skinned mousy boys. Pimply faced, thin beards, horn-rimmed glasses, and hoodies. Shirts the color of puke. By contrast the strapping, ember-eyed machos.”

“Because the young girls are easily influenced. All Aladin has to do is make pretty eyes at her and whisper words like ‘You are the most beautiful girl’ into her ears. Young and dumb.”

“The Arabs can flatter and lie charmingly. The beatings only come later… only the girls don’t know and don’t believe that!”

“The unencumbered 1:1 machismo, unbroken, unabated and uninterrupted. Coupled with the belief/hope: and I am going to be the one who tames that.”

“Maybe the word ‘team’ is also an answer to the question. While between 1974 to the 1990s men still engaged in individualist sports, today all we have left are boys/millionaires, and Nivea models. What in God’s name has derailed so badly in the last 20 to 30 years that we have given it all away to these backwoods machos?”

“Because they got lots of money!” (Well yes, the young asylum seekers on one hand are almost always recipients, but on the other hand they receive more money than German people on HartzIV. And add to that other sources of income such as drug dealing etc., then one can show a girl a really good time.)

“Western men are vilified as “toxic”

Reason Number 2: Multicultural Indoctrination

“Narcissism and indoctrination. Showing off how awesome one is.”

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Gates of Vienna News Feed 6/18/2018

A man went on an extended shooting spree while carjacking people in the town of Tumwater, Washington. An armed citizen encountered the shooter in a Wal-Mart parking lot while the latter was attempting another carjacking, and shot the perpetrator dead before he could hurt anyone else.

In other news, college students in the Spanish town of Alicante are being forced out of their lodgings so that migrants who recently arrived on the Aquarius can be housed.

To see the headlines and the articles, click “Continue reading” below.

Thanks to AF, Charles Low, Dean, JD, MC, Reader from Chicago, SS, and all the other tipsters who sent these in.

Notice to tipsters: Please don’t submit extensive excerpts from articles that have been posted behind a subscription firewall, or are otherwise under copyright protection.

Caveat: Articles in the news feed are posted “as is”. Gates of Vienna cannot vouch for the authenticity or accuracy of the contents of any individual item posted here. We check each entry to make sure it is relatively interesting, not patently offensive, and at least superficially plausible. The link to the original is included with each item’s title. Further research and verification are left to the reader.

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The End Times of Albion: Lessons From History and Organising for the Present

The essay below by Seneca III is the latest in the “End Times of Albion” series. Previously: Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, and Part 5.

Lessons From History and Organising for the Present

The End Times of Albion, Part 6A

by Seneca III

“Cut them down, don’t be afraid, they are not armed.”

The England of 1819 was in many ways similar to the England we find today. The Napoleonic wars which began in 1803 had ended at Waterloo some three years previously on 18th June 1815, and a war-weary people began to look inward at the state of political affairs at home after dealing with the dictator Bonaparte.

What soon became apparent to them was that all was not well. By the beginning of 1819, the pressure generated by poor economic conditions, coupled with the relative lack of suffrage in Northern England, had enhanced the appeal of political radicalism. In response, the Manchester Patriotic Union, a group agitating for parliamentary reform, organised a demonstration to be addressed by the well-known radical orator Henry Hunt.

Shortly after the meeting began, local magistrates called on the military authorities to arrest Hunt and several others on the hustings with him, and to disperse the crowd. Cavalry charged into the crowd with sabres drawn, and in the ensuing mayhem 15 people were killed and 600-700 were injured. The massacre was given the name Peterloo in an ironic comparison to the Battle of Waterloo, which had taken place four years earlier.

Peterloo’s immediate effect was to cause the government to crack down on reform, with the passing of what became known as the Six Acts. It also led directly to the foundation of The Manchester Guardian (now The Guardian), but had little other effect on the pace of reform. Peterloo is commemorated by a plaque close to the site, a replacement for an earlier one that was criticised as being inadequate, as it did not reflect the scale of the massacre.


In 1819 Lancashire was represented by two members of parliament (MPs). Voting was restricted to the adult male owners of freehold land with an annual rental value of 40 shillings or more, and votes could only be cast at the county town of Lancaster by a publicly spoken declaration at the hustings. Constituency boundaries were out of date, and the so-called Rotten Boroughs had a hugely disproportionate influence on the membership of Parliament compared to the size of their populations: Old Sarum in Wiltshire, with one voter, elected two MPs, as did Dunwich in Suffolk, which by the early 19th century had almost completely disappeared into the sea.

The major urban centres of Lancashire, with a combined population of almost one million, were represented by either the two county MPs for Lancashire, or the two for Cheshire in the case of Stockport. By comparison, more than half of all MPs were returned by a total of just 154 owners of rotten or closed boroughs. Of the 515 MPs for England and Wales 351 were returned by the patronage of 177 individuals and a further 16 by the direct patronage of the government: all 45 Scottish MPs owed their seats to patronage. These inequalities in political representation led to calls for reform.

Exacerbating matters were the Corn Laws, the first of which was passed in 1815, imposing a tariff on foreign grain in an effort to protect English grain producers. The cost of food rose as people were forced to buy the more expensive and lower quality British grain, and periods of famine and chronic unemployment ensued, increasing the desire for political reform both in Lancashire and in the country at large.

Against this background, a “great assembly” was organised by the Manchester Patriotic Union, formed by radicals from The Manchester Observer. The newspaper’s founder Joseph Johnson was the union’s secretary. He wrote to Henry Hunt asking him to chair a meeting in Manchester in August 1819. Johnson wrote:

“Nothing but ruin and starvation stare one in the face; the state of this district is truly dreadful, and I believe nothing but the greatest exertions can prevent an insurrection. Oh, that you in London were prepared for it.”

Unknown to Johnson and Hunt, the letter was intercepted by government spies and copied before being sent to its destination. The contents were interpreted to mean that an insurrection was being planned, and the government responded by ordering the 15th Hussars to Manchester.

The mass public meeting planned for 2 August was delayed. The Manchester Observer reported it was called “to take into consideration the most speedy and effectual mode of obtaining Radical reform in the Common House of Parliament” and “to consider the propriety of the ‘Unrepresented Inhabitants of Manchester’ electing a person to represent them in Parliament”. The magistrates, led by William Hulton, had been advised by the acting Home Secretary, Henry Hobhous, that the election of a member of parliament without the King’s writ was a serious misdemeanour, encouraging them to declare the assembly illegal as soon as it was announced on 31 July. The radicals sought a second opinion on the meeting’s legality, which was that “The intention of choosing Representatives, contrary to the existing law, tends greatly to render the proposed Meeting seditious; under those circumstances it would be deemed justifiable in the Magistrates to prevent such Meeting.”

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Denmark and The Three Insecurities

I remember when Queen Margrethe II talked about the need to re-examine immigration. Sure enough, this is mentioned in her wiki:

In 2016 an interview within the book De dybeste rødder (En: The Deepest Roots) she showed, according to historians at Saxo instituttet, a change in attitude to immigration towards a more restrictive stance. She stated that the Danish people should have more explicitly clarified the rules and values of Danish culture in order to be able to teach them to new arrivals. She further stated that the Danes in general have underestimated the difficulties involved in successful integration of immigrants, exemplified with the rules of a democracy not being clarified to Muslim immigrants and a lack of readiness to enforce those rules. This was received as a change in line with the attitude of the Danish people.

I’d always hoped her autobiography would be translated in English. It turned out to be a futile wish.