June 22nd, 1593: The Austrian Army Defeats the Turks at Sisak, the Gateway to Central Europe

Christians confront the Turks at the Battle of Sisak

I’ve recently become interested in the Battle of Sisak (June 22, 1593), in which a small Austrian army repulsed a much larger Ottoman force, and thus kept the Turks from making further inroads into Central Europe. Among the Turkish troops who died during the battle (by drowning in the river) was Hassan, Pasha of Bosnia, the commander of the Ottoman expedition.

When he translates material for us, our Slovenian correspondent uses as his pseudonym the name of the Slovenian hero Andrej Turjaški (Andreas von Auersperg, Lord of Schönberg und Seisenberg). That name got me interested in the history of the battle, which occurred in what is now Croatia. It is little-known in English (and the wiki is inadequate), yet it seems to be a significant victory over the Ottomans, comparable in its own way to the sieges of Vienna.

While reading this material, it suddenly occurred to me: for all those centuries, the fractious Central Europeans fought bravely to keep the Ottoman Caliphate out of Europe. And now they are simply handing the territory over to the latter-day Ottomans — inviting them in. Anyone among the Austrian political leadership who is over the age of fifty knows very well the history of the sieges of Vienna, Sisak, the Hungarian campaigns, etc. Yet, despite their knowledge, they are surrendering their country anyway. It’s a betrayal of such magnitude that it’s difficult to comprehend.

As Fjordman once said:

The European Union is the principal motor behind the Islamization of Europe. It is formally surrendering an entire continent to Islam while destroying established national cultures, and is prepared to harass those who disagree with this policy.

This is the greatest organized betrayal in Western history.

Dymphna sees this unprecedented high-level treason as a diabolical process. She says that when she was younger she didn’t believe in the diabolical, but she’s changed her mind.

I mentioned the Battle of Sisak to Rembrandt Clancy, and asked him if he knew of any German-language histories of the day’s events. Several days later, much to my surprise and delight, he sent the following translation of a 19th-century account of the battle.

The translator includes the following preliminary notes:

I did not intend a project, but a mere sampling. Having started roughly in the middle of the monograph, at the section on the arquebusiers, it gradually expanded in both directions until I was half way through the work at one end, and had completed the introduction at the other end.

As I made my way through the document, I began more and more to share your interest on this subject, not to mention the language itself.

The feel of the piece is epic, a little Homeric in flavour, with its order of battle, for example, which names the heroes, emphasising their nobility and hinting at lineage, not to mention the establishment of a connection with poetry and song of the epic type singing of ‘arms and the man’. The introduction is unmistakeable in this respect. The ending of the introduction is marked by a horizontal line, also in the original.

Radič’s preliminaries make mention of the capture by the Turks of the strategically located Bihać, which comes under the regional name of Wichitsch in the monograph.

It would be interesting to study the role of Pope Clement VIII in the Long Turkish War, for during that period he apparently sought to build a Holy League against the Turks, following Pius V.

Below is Rembrandt Clancy’s translation of the first half (reckoned without the notes and references) of P. v. Radič’s The Battle of Sissek — Sissek being the 19th-century German spelling of Sisak.

The Battle of Sisak, 1593, by Hans Rudolf Miller

Source: Radič, P. V. Die Schlacht bei Sissek: 22 June 1593. Laibach, 1861
The illustration of the battle: Wikipedia

The Battle of Sissek

22 June 1593

on the Feast Day of St. Achatius.

A Monograph
P. v. Radič

Carniolae Victoria: victory against the Turks at Sisak, June 22 1593

When a people enter the feast day into the history book to mark a period which is beginning anew, so is it understandable that they are inclined to leaf back through the pages and seek the places wherein bright colours gleam. In the chronicle of our people, it is in such places that red is the most prevalent colour; this brings to their minds the much blood which was shed on our soil, or leastwise that which had been shed by the sons of our Fatherland in the adjoining south-eastern frontier regions throughout the XV and XVI centuries. Whilst recording with delight the fact of the granting of equal status to all the peoples of our great Imperial State, we tarry with pleasure on the numerous places recounting to us of the heroic deeds of our forefathers in the battles with the Turks.

One such conspicuous deed occurred on the 22nd of June 1593 at the fortress Sissek, the battle with the besieging Turks being accepted on the notable counsel of Baron Andreas von Auersperg [Andrej Turjaški] and fought out by virtue of the courage and strength of this same counsellor to the great renown of our Fatherland.

The year 1408 brought the first Turkish bands to Carniolan soil [the Duchy of Carniola, in what is now Slovenia] and indeed into the immediately adjoining Metlika region; in 1418 almost 1,000 Carniolans, under one Lord von Auersperg, made close acquaintance with this uninvited guest in the great battle at Radkersburg. From that time on, with few interruptions throughout all the decades of the XV and XVI centuries, the Ottomans alternated between openly declared campaigns and unpredictable incursions into our country in search of booty.

It was mostly the frontier pashas of Bosnia and Herzegovina, who undertook such expeditions on their own account for the sake of booty, but often to so as to set large ransom amounts by taking prisoner important personages of the Slovenian-Croatian border defence.

In deference to these conditions — and the more so in consideration of the major importance for general history of these battles which arose from the vigorous resistance on the part of our frontier lands — it would certainly be very worth while to draw up a comprehensive portrait of the battles based on a precise examination of the sources.

But to introduce here even the most important and successful “Campaigns against the Turks” would go far beyond the scope of this work.

For this reason I am content, in the interests of the better appreciation of my subject, to be brief in the depiction of Carniola’s situation in those times.

The XV century, which was one filled with the most difficult battles for the lands unified under the sceptre of Friedrich III, had also brought to our country the collective suffering of oppression of one kind or another, disorientation in public and private relations and especially a constant pressure from the Ottomans.

The country sensed deeply within itself the controversies of the Hapsburgs and those with the Celje, the latter of which asserted themselves also on our soil in a bloody way; there was suffering from the general lawlessness of the time, whereby the more powerful nobles of our country worried little about the Kaiser’s court and carried on feuds with one another; the most oppressive, however, was the sensibility to the deficiency in requisite capacity to mount resistance against the archenemy, who incessantly pressed hard against our still poorly-fortified cities and because of the lack of subsidies were able to oppose our constantly inadequate troop strength.

The weak government of Friedrich had come to an end and a new era dawned under his excellent son, the memorable Max (whom a son of our country, Anastasius Grün — Count Anton Alexander von Auersperg — celebrated in song) also under whom our country came into the manifold conditions which determine her welfare.

Then again, soon afterwards there were the peasant uprisings of the years 1515-16, then the stark confrontation between princes and people, which arose from the schism which also gradually penetrated into our southern region; but above all, there was the renewed, systematic coup of the Ottomans, now carried out on a larger scale, the conditions which when taken together destroyed the beautiful illusions of an ordered and felicitous life in the country of Carniola for a long time.

The peasant uprisings combined with the collective consequence of such events, which always militate against the morality of a people, to bring among us yet another social evil: that through the uprisings many a sturdy castle, which perhaps could have held out against the impact of the Turks, was ruined; and many an important noble house, whose help from outside perhaps might have performed the best service for our country, was brought down and even annihilated.

The hostile posture and ferocity between the territorial lords (the princes of Inner Austria) and those under them, mainly the rural people (the nobility) of Carniola, was a result of the evangelical teachings of Luther — which our people also quickly accepted — and was a result of the measures which the country princes implemented against the spread of the same; or what was worse, their merely attempted measures hindered first and foremost a presence which was so urgently necessary in the border regions.

Then it happened, that instead of meeting the common enemy with unified strength, the provincial parliament became extremely tempestuous by virtue of the Archduke-regent’s demand in the name of the Kaiser for the approval for increased taxes and the obligation to do military service [persönlichen Zuzug] and in turn the estates rose up with their demands for concessions in religious affairs. So the pinnacle of one award is determined by the breadth of another, and often the common objective to the detriment of both parties remains out of sight.

However, our country’s accomplishments in matters pertaining to the border were quite considerable all the same. In examining the still-preserved legers, we are astonished at the significant sums of money which we alone spent in the defence of the borders. In addition we still have to reckon on the constant resourcefulness of our knighthood, which knighthood always won the ascendency over Styria and Carinthia, to say nothing of the natural proximity of the theatre of war, the precision of preparedness and of their “movement forward”.

In was in just such a way that we Carniolans offered vigorous resistance to the Ottoman’s methodical expeditions over the last decades of the XVI, notwithstanding the manifold obstacles mentioned, however, and not infrequently on our own initiative; and history places us in the first rank of heroes, Katzianer, Khisl, Lamberg, Lenkovič, Thurn and the Auerspergs; and then again, ahead of many of these manly lineages, there is Herbart VIII (fallen at Budaschki on the 22nd of September 1576) and Andreas von Auersperg, the victor of 22 June 1593.

I cannot close these preliminary remarks better than to invoke here the masterful character, which Anastasius Grün provided in the prologue to his transcription of the folk songs from Carniola.

Auersperg writes:

By virtue of its geographical location, where it is exposed despite the peace agreements to the almost annually recurrent incursions of the pashas on the frontier, the entire country of Carniola was a great encampment throughout the centuries, a castle bristling with artillery and armaments, the entire population ably bearing arms, like the garrison of an immense outpost guard, at any moment ready for the march, battle ready and expectant of the signal (Kreuth-, also Kreuzfeuer), ablaze from every height, which could call the entire country to arms within just a few hours. Every house in those days was a fortification; palaces and even churches were fortified outposts with towers, walls of encirclement and trenches (in Tabor), intended mainly for the reception of the defenceless and for the worthless belongings of those in flight. This epoch to which belongs battles most fierce and tenacious is the flashpoint of the national history, to it belongs all poetic memories, to it the development of a unique warlike folk-life, and therefore also a folk-song that stands apart.

Auersperg delivers his verdict on the folk song itself with the following words:

The close relationship of Carniola folk song to the poetry of other Slavonic peoples notwithstanding, it nevertheless bears the very closest kinship with Serbian folk poetry. If, however, the Serbian folk song, in keeping with the history of the Serbians, permits the sweeping impression of well structured epic in its celebration of patriotic heroes, as proud triumph and victorious song after a war concluded with renown, so too does Carniola’s folk song, likewise in keeping with national history, sound swift and disjointed, as brief romance, as brazen song of arms, as is customary for them to be sung at night at the outpost by warriors on watch, who stay cheerful, shorten the night, but above all do not wish to excessively spin out the thread which can be severed at any moment by moving out or by attack.

*   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *

After Hassan, Pasha of Bosnia, had ventured a first vain attack on Sissek in 1592, and after he had subsequently finished the building up of Petrinia and had conquered several smaller, but not unimportant border posts, he concentrated his forces again in the region of Petrinia early in 1593 for the purpose of once more attacking Sissek. He had turned beforehand to the commanders in Hungary, — then Turkish territory as is well known — to Ofen, Stuhlwesenburg, Gran, Fünfkirchen and Sigeth, — and received from each commander 30 companies of their cavalry. In total, his army may have amounted to 25,000 to 30,000 men. This impressive power, which moreover was supported by many cannon, had gathered on the 1st of June near Banjaluka and appeared thereafter on the Wednesday before Corpus Christi (16 June) before Sissek. This fortress, the military training of Siscia under the Romans, lies on a promontory at the influx of the Kolpa and Sava rivers and forms the strategic transition point from the far southeast through to Carniola and Croatia. The position belonged at that time to the cathedral chapter of Agram. Its command fell to two priests, Blasius Jurak and Mathias Fintič (the same had already held out in the first siege). These, having foreseen the Pasha’s attack, had shortly before asked Lord Ruprecht von Eggenberg of Agram for help and received such in the form of one hundred German knights, through which newly acquired reinforcements in manpower from the rural population allowed for the expectation of a spirited defence.

Hassan drew up in front of the fortress, undertaking an unrelenting fire on the same; the result of this bombardment was the death of one of the commanders, Mathias Fintič, who met his end when he was hit in the head by a split off piece of iron from the castle gate. Together with him, 12 other defenders were killed by the same cause. The besieged garrison now sent a request for relief to Ban Thomas von Erdödy and Ruprecht von Eggenberg. This was promised to them and to that end they issued the notice everywhere throughout the lands. First the Croatian nobility were called to arms; then Andreas von Auersperg, Colonel of the Croatian border and maritime frontier and General in Karlstadt (which, incidentally, was called a bastion of the Auerspergs), as well as Lieutenant Colonel on the Slovenian border, Lord Alban Grosswein, were urged to make haste “by day and by night.”

All came.

On 19 June Ruprecht von Eggenberg put a bridge over the Sava and led the troops which had arrived across it; Auersperg joined up with him in Turopolje.

According to the records received, the total number of Christian fighters numbered close to 4,000. Ordered according to individual brigades we find:

1.   Lord Andreas von Auersperg, Lord of Schönberg, commanding officer of the Croatian border and maritime frontier, with his bodyguard company [Leibcompagnie] of mounted arquebusiers, 300 men in cuirass with tiger skins, splendid soldiers;
2.   Lord Adam von Rauber of Weineck and Kreutberg, captain of cavalry from the Carniolan Estates, led the 200 Carniolan arquebusiers;
3.   Christoph von Obrutschan of Altenburg, captain of cavalry from the territory of Carinthia, brought over 100 men;
4.   Lord Ruprecht von Eggenberg, Imperial and Royal War Commissar, appeared with 300 men or with three platoons of German foot soldiers;
5.   Thomas, Baron von Erdödy, Ban of Croatia, had 1,240 infantry and cavalry;
6.   Melchior, Baron von Rödern auf Friedland, Colonel of over 500 mounted Silesian riflemen, splendid soldiers, who contributed much to the victory at Sissek;
7.   Lord Alban Grosswein, lieutenant-colonel on the Slovenian [Windisch] border, in command of 400 men, mounted and on foot;
8.   Peter, Baron von Erdödy, Captain of the Uskoks, led 500 uskoks and hussars;
9.   Stephan Tachy, Baron von Stattenberg, 80 Hussars;
10.   Herr Martin Pietschnik zu Altenhof, Captain, 100 men;
11.   Lords Georg and Sigmund Paradeiser of Neuhaus, Captains, in command of the Karlstadt, Carinthian and Carniolan Musketeers, 160 men;
12.   Ferdinand Weidner, son of a baptised Jew, with a platoon of German knights, 100 men.

In all, according to this catalogue, there were 3,980 men. As a result, Istuanffi’s suggestion of an 8,000 strong Christian army appears very much exaggerated. On 20 June this relief army moved to take on reinforcements and bivouacked at Novigrad. Here they awaited Count Georg Zriny with his bevy of soldiers, but in vain, according to Valvasor, since they were prevented from coming. In the meantime, a council of war was held to discuss whether to proceed with an attack or not. After multifarious debates in which the minimal strength of the army in opposition to the superior strength of the enemy was declared, the Croats in particular voted against the offensive. The decision was made when a messenger arrived with the words: “If Sissek is not liberated today, it is certain to fall tomorrow.” But finally these words from Auersperg: “It is not a matter of numbers; we must ask God for victory.”

Rödern and Eggenberg shared his opinion, and the others offered their formal consent and the attack was decided for the next day, the 22nd of June — the feast day of St. Achatius.

Three days before (on the 19th), only 100 Christians (of Peter Erdödy’s Weiss-Röcklein (Uskoks) and Hussars) had routed 500 Turks who had moved across the Sava in order cut off supplies to the fortress of Sissek, which on the side of the Christian commanders could be taken as a good omen.

On the morning of the 22nd, the Christians moved against the Ottomans. Hassan Pasha came across the Kolpa with infantry led by Memi, Bey of Zwornik. He hid his pike square (Gewalthaufen) in a copse, hoping to entice the Christians toward it so as to be able to encircle them easily.

In his rear he had the river, on his left the Odra, which flows immediately into the Kolpa at that point; and to the right was the bridge which he had crossed to take up his position and which was supposed to maintain and secure contact with his encampment and the army on the farther side of the Kolpa, both of which were concealed by a fortified hill.

Hassan had taken only 18,000 men across, the core of his entire army (he left the rest in the rear), as the figures on our annotated battlefield illustration attest, in agreement with the reports from the Christian and Ottoman sides.

The said deployment of forces had occurred at a distance of one half mile from Sissek.

The Christian army, with its back abutting the palus salutis as can be seen on the illustration, was divided into three main battle lines, from which the first, under Ban Erdödy, was given preference in the attack, as Valvasor remarks, on account of his dignity; Andreas Auersperg led the second and Rödern led the third. Our side was set to begin the battle between 10 and 11 o’clock in the morning.

The Croatians and the Hussars under Erdödy attacked as mentioned earlier, but being unable to hold their position against the enemy, who had positioned 1,000 select horsemen to the forward position, they pulled back to the second battle line led by [Andreas] von Auersperg, the commander of Karlstadt. This latter now ordered his forces to move up quickly; the Croatians charged forcefully, and several captains pressed forward with their regiments, “Carinthians and Croatians, Rödern’s men and the men from Karlstadt, the Grün — and Weissröchlein, and the German infantry” all pressed forward with such fury into the Turkish flanks, as Auersperg himself reports, that Pasha made his way toward the bridge in hope of turning his fleeing troops around again at that point. But he was unable to execute his plan, for the arquebusier commanders, Stephan Graf von Blagay and Lord Jakob von Prank, who in the meantime had moved forward in good order, had already seized the bridge. Hassan, along with his entire pike square, was forced into the River Kolpa.

It is thus that the outcome of this memorable battle is narrated in the reports of the captains. Similarly we find it in the situational maps in the war archives and made visible in the battle illustrations, which accounts, accordingly consistent with the written sources, thoroughly disprove the details of the chroniclers, which Hammer [Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall] also accepted, namely, that “the bridge broke under the fleeing troops and for that reason a large number of them leapt into the water.”

The surface of the water of the Kolpa, which was significantly swollen at the time, was almost covered with men and horses and after three days the river was still washing up corpses. Only 3,000 Turks escaped by flight.

As to prisoners, except for Hassan’s stable master, which one of Tachy’s cavalrymen overtook, and Dauth Spahi … extremely few were taken. Hardly fifty men were lost to the Christians (mostly uskoks).

Among the drowned Turks was Hassan himself, then Mehmed, Pascha of Herzegovina, and the son of the Sultan’s sister, 12 beys and many other commanders of greater or lesser rank.

The body of the first of these was taken completely out of the water and its head chopped off.

A certain Veit Klekowitz — as Valvasor relates — had the chopped off head impaled on a pole und put on display for the troops, in order to avenge the highly prized head of Herr Herbart von Auersperg, upon whose head the cruel Turks had done the same thing.

Auersperg’s letter mentions the rumour that the Pasha’s head and the heads of other eminent Turks were supposed to have been brought to Vienna.


Update: Rembrandt Clancy sends this additional information based on the footnotes to the monograph:

Radič puts the footnote to the name of “Hassan, Pasha of Bosnia”, immediately after the introduction. The note reads as follows:

An indescribably good soldier, but also a fierce tyrant and archenemy of Christendom: like the Mamluks are in general, he being one of them. For he had previously been an Italian Christian and Benedictine monk, but had been seduced by Venus from the cloister, yea even from Christendom to Mohammed. (Johann Weichard Freyherr Valvasor. Ehre des Herzogthums, Krain XV. Buch. Laibach-Nürnberg. 1689, p. 530.)

These sentences are really a direct quotation from Radič’s original 17th century source, Johann Weichard Freyherr Valvasor, which is available to us as you can see from the link. The reference to Venus would have taken on more meaning had Radič just added just one more sentence, for Valvasor continues:

For thereafter he maintained a great number of kept women [Kebsweiber], the majority of them Christian prisoners and of course they were the most beautiful of form. (loc. cit.)

24 thoughts on “June 22nd, 1593: The Austrian Army Defeats the Turks at Sisak, the Gateway to Central Europe

  1. The current immigration wave is made possibly only by the fact that the Turks allow it to take place. It is they who permit Syrians, Afghans, Iraqis and others to enter Turkey. It is they who do nothing to prevent them from exiting by sea. Is this a deliberate act, or better explained by simple government incompetence or corruption? Hard to know.

    The Europeans seem a bit less inclined, these days, to allow it to continue. Only Syrians and Iraqis now seem to hold golden tickets. Will new crossings from Turkey be discouraged once the pile-up grows in Greece? If not, we could see a million migrants stranded in Greece. That could lead to big trouble, indeed.

    • Update to my post. Slovenia and Croatia will each only permit 580 entrants per day. Serbia has been informed thusly. Meanwhile, three NATO ships are en route to the Aegean. NATO disclaims any intent to interdict, which raises the question.

      I think it’s highly likely they will take some action to discourage crossings, and so reduce the numbers in advance of an expected Spring wave.

    • Greeks have NO patience with muslims!!

      They will put them on planes and dump them BACK where they came from.

      NO mosques are allowed to be built in Greece. NOT even temporary ones.

      PAY back for the terrors of the Ottoman empire’s DISGUSTING treatment of Christians in Greece and Armenia.

  2. Great article Baron. I’ve also had trouble finding English language sources on this battle which started the Long Turkish War. Its worth noting that the Habsburg envoy in Constantinople at the time, Friedrich von Kreckwitz, was imprisoned with his staff when news of the defeat reached the Sultan. Kreckwitz had recently given rich gifts to the Sultan intended to buy peace – a typical example of appeasement failing. The Turks were notorious sore losers who would often kill and torture Christian merchants and diplomats when things didn’t go their way. Two months later the Turks would actually capture Sisak although it was recaptured by the Habsburgs the next year 1594.

    The Ottoman conquest of Sisak marks the maximum geographical extent of Ottoman rule in Croatia (in sq km that I’m aware of). It also appears to be the Ottoman Empire’s first ever permanent loss of territory since Gyor (Hungary) wasn’t reconquered by the Habsburgs until 1595. So Sisak may be much more significant than it has been given credit for in more ways than one!

  3. On two very different notes I would like to say:

    1) It is apparent from this article that you share in interest both the subject and in scholarship. It is so good to know that this still exist in this very strange era.

    2) Dymphna is quite correct – it is diabolical. Literally. I’m not suppose to believe that as I have a Ph.D. but it happens to be true.

    3) You and your readers may be interested to know that Britain will exit the EU on June 23rd. It was always an unnatural alliance. As Churchill once said “You can always count on the Americans to do the right thing – after they have tried everything else.” It sort of applies to the British as well. They may be a bit slow to learn from history, but they do get there

  4. Ahhh, the stuff you never learn in High School or College History Classes!
    Thanks Baron. Can a book be made available? This history helps explain the Bosnian War and how Madame Hillaryous came down on the side of the Muslims against the Greeks, Albanians and Croats.

    • Its good to know that some people at least understand what happened there.
      Gold, Silver, Lead and Tin. Thousands of tons of coal.
      The Romans had mines there for hundreds of years.
      Take Care 🙂

      • You’ve reminded me that wars among non-Islamic peoples were often fought for the natural resources. When people can’t trade, they fight…thus the rise of Japanese militarism in the 20th century.
        Islam’s wars are distinctly different. They are about conquering for its own sake. The Bedouin tribes’ habit of intramural razzia [http://www.islam-watch.org/Warner/Islam-West-Razzia.htm] spread past the desert long before the myths of Mohammed began to spread. The unholy, unhealthy need to conquer and humiliate absolutely arises, imo, from the common use of babies as sexual objects.

        That profound violation of an infant’s boundaries is not only unrecognized as damage but is seen as not being harmful as long as the object (the infant) isn’t left physically “damaged”. This profoundly ignorant (and cruelly destructive) beastiality is at the heart of orthodox Islam with its preoccupation about women’s ‘honor’ and its many taboos about bodily functions. You can see the mental/emotional distortions that arise from these experiences of infancy in the rules surrounding cleanliness and prayer. In any other culture those compulsions would be seen as crippling and bizarre.

        • “Dymphna sees this unprecedented high-level treason as a diabolical process. She says that when she was younger she didn’t believe in the diabolical, but she’s changed her mind.” I’ve come round to that way of thinking – it’s the only explanation that fits.

          “In any other culture those compulsions would be seen as crippling and bizarre.” Culture is the manifestation of a people’s relationship with life/nature. Hateful people beget a hateful culture

        • “Babies as sexual objects”

          It also seems obvious that “marrying” off even babies, makes for maximum breeding potential starting young, as they may be gaining generations this way, as opposed to marrying and having children around twenty years of age, for women.

          • Performance on Times Square

            Man(65) “marries” 12 year old girl

            “Man, 65, who posed with his 12-YEAR-OLD ‘bride’ for photos Times Square is met with fury from onlookers who try to drag the girl away from him in social experiment clip “

    • Albania was not targeted by NATO… NATO acted as their air force in support of the Albanian Kosovo Liberation Army which until 1997 was considered by the US State dept. as a TERRORIST organization, having taken over 3 million dollars from Bin Laden to buy weapons to fight the Serbs in the SERBIAN area of Yugoslavia called KOSOVO.

      By the way, Kosovo means nothing in ALBANIAN as it is a SERBIAN word meaning place of the blackbirds.

    • “This history helps explain the Bosnian War and how Madame Hillaryous came down on the side of the Muslims against the Greeks, Albanians and Croats.”

      I don’t see in the least how this history explained why or how the US and the Hillary State Department came into the Bosnian and Kosovo wars on the side of the Muslims (and Croats).

  5. More broadly, we may say that for a solid millennium (at least), from the 7th to the 17th centuries, Mohammedans were traumatizing and terrorizing Europeans.

    Hence, one important ingredient in the development of Western PC MC with regard to Islam is a collective PTSD. Semi- or subconsciously, most Westerners tend to flinch when Muslims come to their attention, much as a serially battered wife may flinch at the mention of the husband who tortured and terrified her for decades (even if she persists in defending him).

    After the 17th century, of course, Mohammedans continued to try, but because of the astounding progression of Western superiority, were largely reduced to that special form of Jihad, the Jihad of the High Seas, or Water Jihad — Piracy (until that too was largely stopped, thanks to Thomas Jefferson, in the early 19th century).

    • I’m sorry, but it wasn’t Thomas Jefferson and the USA who put a stop to the Barbary pirates, it was the Royal Navy sweeping them from the seas, and then the French conquest of the Maghreb taking their ports away from them that did it.

      The Royal Navy spent the two decades after the Revolutionary/Napoleonic Wars beating the snot out of pirates all over the world, to the stage where by the late 1830s they had almost completely eliminated them. At was the same time period as they were shutting down the slave trade.

      • Sure, not only the English but other European countries at various times targeted Muslim piracy. However, Jefferson’s accomplishment was to rally a coalition of Americans and Europeans to definitively end the problem once and for all. It took him decades of wheedling, traveling from European capital to capital to hold meetings, and of course keeping up a voluminous correspondence, before Europeans finally agreed.

    • Bill Warner has made this point very well in his startling video,”Why We Are Afraid, A 1400 Year Secret”


      Based on your obvious understanding of this phenomenon, Hesperado, I don’t grok why you don’t demonstrate more compassion for those of us who labor under the flag of the Counterjihad. Yes, we fail to call our fellow fighters to account, in hopes that solidarity will reap a more fruitful alliance. Does it work? Sometimes. But the alternative, to be at one another’s throats in the mode of, say, Ms. Schlussel (spelling?), seems so very wearying.

      I don’t know why you’ve suddenly reappeared in the comments section on GoV. Your incisive intelligence can sometimes be a welcome cut through the overgrowth, but your striving here, as it is at your website, seems mostly in service of the further building up of your City of One at the expense of us lesser beings with whom you are somehow forced to share a planet. Ironically, your real bête noire, Robert Spencer, doesn’t much like us either but then he scarcely appears here.

      What drives you here, Hesperado? Is there anything we can do to alleviate your dysphoria? I am not being snarky; I really am trying to understand.

      • With regard to my dysphoria, the only thing I care about is a zero tolerance of all Muslims. When in the Counter-Jihad I see signs of it (only ever from a smattering of civilians here and there probably under pseudonyms, never from blog owners on up the food chain), I feel momentarily relieved; when, more often, I see in the Counter-Jihad signs of its opposing tendency, it depresses me. Then, to add insult to injury, when I point it out (often in the context of an argument defending my conviction as to why it’s so deeply misguided), the principle I am defending (often needlessly hand in hand with some ad hominem against me) is dismissed or attacked. I suppose I continue to hope that the elusive, ephemeral sparks of the aforementioned zero tolerance can gain traction for a living flame that can grow more widely; and that by ruffling feathers in the eyes of those who so curiously, maddeningly seem to take personal umbrage at the notion of condemning all Muslims with rational prejudice, I am helping in some small way to do that…

        • Hesperado:

          As Warner so compassionately points out in his video, the desire to turn away from Islam’s cruel barbarities is understandable: it’s a form of PTSD.


          In children, PTSD is now called Developmental Trauma Disorder (see http://acestoohigh.com/). It’s what I suffer from, unfortunately, so obviously I’m in the wrong line of work. But my worldview includes the idea of vocation, of ‘being called out’ to do something in particular. These calls vary for each of us in each stage of life and to answer them in a full sense requires discernment, even if that apperception is through a glass darkly.
          I get a sense of exigency from your cry for a “zero tolerance for Muslims”. However, I know some who fled Iran and to me, they are as human and as deserving as you or me. I can find no tolerance for Islam, and that is a very different thing. To you it might be a quibble, but for me, who has to answer to someone(s) besides Hesperado – surely a pseudonym? And all right for you, Hesperado, but not for others? – the distinction is crucial. It is between someone born into a culture, who is quite secular, who waves away the idea of religious belief and who is a Muslim in the same way some of my other friends, leftist Jews, consider themselves “Jewish” – i.e., it’s an identity, like being Italian; doesn’t matter a whit to either of them.

          Your visits here are sporadic so you might have missed our explanations for the genesis of Gates of Vienna. Some who don’t like us very much would call this an etiology…enh. So here we go again:

          When we started our blog, it was the Baron’s idea. He was concerned about my growing isolation after the death of my daughter.

          [Even though she wasn’t his child, the B struggled along with me for more than 20 years to keep her alive, to find a way to wholeness for her. We lurched from crisis to crisis, every six weeks or so for twenty years. We’d long since lost the ability to quit trying. One time, shortly before her accidental death from an overdose of the pain meds to treat 3 kinds of migraines, Shelagh asked me if I would help her find a priest who could do some kind of exorcism. She wasn’t “possessed” but she’d discovered she had Multiple Personality Disorder; it was the best explanation for the way she was fracturing into ever smaller pieces like a sheet of tempered glass that had been hit with a sharp object.]

          The B’s work as a systems analyst took him away from home during the week and by then – two months after his sister’s death – our son had left home to begin college. So the Baron knew I had empty hands, that I needed some form of “occupational therapy”, one that would address my intellectual needs. In addition we both wanted to be in some kind of structured contact during his time away. For a while we did that by being very active on the comment threads of Wretchard’s “Belmont Club”. It was necessary but not sufficient.

          We were also both suffering the aftermath of 9/11. We still are. This blog was the B’s gift to me. He named it (he’d long ago explained to me the significance of the date September 11th), chose his own name from Jack Vance’s works and took on Bismarck’s visage as his avatar.He suggested mine: I’d recently discovered this Saint Dymphna when a small card with her image and story fell out of a used book I’d ordered on line and when I read it, I fell over laughing. I, who knew all the Irish saints, had never heard of this one. I sent the card to a good friend, a deeply gifted mathematician who was suffering from bi-polar psychotic breaks. I kept the name for myself, though, for Dymphna truly belonged to me.

          So here we are more than a decade later, a crazy Irish saint and a Prussian chancellor, still holding hands as we wander this Garden of Forking Paths. We never expected to be here but then those like me with trauma disorders don’t actually have “expectations”. For the explanation, see here, Too Scared To Cry: Psychic Trauma In Childhood. Neither of us could have dreamed this ‘therapy’ for me would entail trips to Europe for the Baron. It is good, a good, not to know the future.

          The B is wonderfully, boringly predictable in his routines, delightfully creative in his work here. He is a balm for the walking, or waking, wounded. He has immense integrity, tenacity, and perseverance. There is no one I admire more. As for me, the B dreamed once that I’d been diagnosed with “cancer of the follow-through”. Precisely! Everyone who bears the slings and arrows of childhood misfortune has that.

          That is our story. What is yours, Hesperado? I see your conviction but I don’t see that it bears any fruit for you. You say you’re attacked (not here) or dismissed (sometimes here – but that’s a professional hazard we all face; so am I). You have ridiculed our efforts and I’ve yet to see you say, “well done” to anyone here. Don’t need you to say it: just an observation about tactics.

          Peter Drucker’s famous aphorism is one I keep in mind all the time, and never more than in this too-lengthy comment: “communication is always the act of the recipient“. One of the things he means is that we need to be expert listeners. For you and for me, Hesperado, that will be a life-long task…

  6. Thank you for such an elaborate comment. I just couldn’t find the source for that in English.

  7. How many Syrians are among the “refugees”?
    How many Christians among the Syrians?

    One can only ask.

  8. In the the capital of Croatia, Zagreb, which is less than 60 kilometers away from Sisak, the noon every day is marked by a cannon shot fired from Lotrščak Tower on Grič Hill celebrating victory over the same Hassan Pasha who besieged Zagreb (Agram) before his defeat at the Battle of Sisak.

    Btw, the story by Dubravko Horvatić, Grički top (“Grič Cannon”) written in 1987 about the victory of Zagreb burghers over Hassan Pasha is nowadays obligatory reading for 3rd graders in the Elementary Schools in Croatia.


    Hassan Pasha unsuccessfuly besieged Sisak between 24-29 July 1592, but Miklouš Mikac, Croatian commander of Sisak, managed to defeat Hassan Pasha that time.

    In June of 1593 the Croatian defenders besieged in Sisak Fortress numbered 300 hundred men + 100 soldiers from Inner Austria (Carniola and Styria). Total: 400 + 2 master gunners.
    During the battle they charged out of the fortress to support the main Christian force.

    Beside Hassan Pasha of Bosnia Pashalik, among the Turks killed in battle there were four sanjak-beys: Mehmed-bey of Herzegovina Sanjak, Koca Gazi Memi-bey of Zvornik Sanjak, Sultanzade Mustafa-bey of Klis Sanjak and Ramadan-bey of Požega Sanjak.

    Btw, Mehmed-bey and Sultanzade Mustafa-bey were a cousin and a nephew of the ruling sultan and caliph Murad III according to the contemporary Ottoman poets, who were grieving their loss.
    Sultanzade Mustafa-bey was not yet 30 years old when he died in the battle.

    A Turkish poem from Spring of 1593 celebrating Hassan Pasha starts:

    Who is the leader of the ghazis [Islamic fighters],
    who is the leader of the Islamic army,
    isn’t that Hassan Pasha?
    Who flayes the skin from the kafirs,
    and organizes regiments before the battle,
    who breaks the enemy on the Kupa River?
    Isn’t that Hassan Pasha?

    Later Turkish poems grieving the loss of Hassan Pasha blame Croatians for Turkish defeat.



    The capital works of Croatian literature are dedicated to celebrating and encouraging the resistance against the Ottoman Turkish onslaught:

    Marko Marulić, Molitva suprotiva Turkom (“Prayer against the Turks”), 1493-1500

    Marko Marulić, Judita (“Judith”), 1501

    Brne Krnarutić, Vazetje Sigeta grada (“Conquest of Szigetvár Fortress), 1584

    Ivan Gundulić, Osman (“Osman”), 1638

    Filip Grabovac, Cvit razgovora naroda i jezika iliričkoga aliti rvackoga, (“Flower of Talk of the Illyrian or Croatian Nation and Language”), 1747

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